Honor to East Turkestan Army Establishment 75 years on

Honor to East Turkestan Army Establishment 75 years on

Abdurehim Gheni Uyghur

In April , 1944, with the assistance of Consulate of former Soviet Union in Hulja, an underground organization known as Hulja Liberation Organization was found in Hulja county and Elihan Tore was elected as president. On 14th August, Patif Muslimov, Akber, Seyit, Ghani Batur and others built up a partisan fighters group in Ulastay, Nilka County. And early October in the same year,  revolution against vicious suppression of Kuomindang was initiated and soon Nilka Town was liberated through couple of victories of battles against Kuomintang Army.

Although, Guomintang mobilized more than 3 thousand regular army soldiers from Urumqi and tried to crackdown this revolution, but ended up being defeated continually by insurgents. Insurgents liberated Hulja City through Harambagh Battle, Airport Battle and langxiang Battle with continuous victories over Kuomintang Army and declared the building of East Turkestan Republic on 12th November, 1944.

East Turkestan Army
East Turkestan Army

On 8th April, 1945 an army flag handover ceremony was held in Hulja and established East Turkestan regular army was declared officially. Uniforms and ordines simulated to Soviet Union Army and flag, emblem and badges were confirmed and medals, medals of Honor were awarded. Military Distribution Department, political Division, Martial Court and General Court-Martial were established as divisions under army headquarter. Palinov and Mazarov, Russians settled down in Hulja, were elected as Chief Commander and commander of Headquarter respectively. Zunun Teyipov was elected deputy chief commander. Ghani Batur and Abdukerim Abbasov were elected general court martial and commander of political division respectively. The total number of military personnel exceeded more than 40 thousand. Although, this army was newly born, but showed excellent morale and defeated and drove away Kuomintang Army from three municipals in East Turkestan and marched to Kuomintang political and military center, Urumqi City, and gained consecutive victories at Zheng  and Xihuo where was described as unbreakable defense line of Urumqi. The army proceeded to Urumqi with total victories and camped near Manas River which is 150 km away from Urumqi.

At the Same time, an army was built to march south and sent commissioners to south to organize armed revolts throughout entire East Turkestan. Built up an armed uprising centered Tashkorhan and Tashmelik in south to start full-attack in the areas controlled by Kuomintang invaders. The East Turkestan army, on the other hand, liberated strategic counties of Bay and Onsu and besiege Kuomindang army within the city of Aksu. Same time, insurgents in others regions attacked and perished local Kuomintang army and Chinese army were almost besieged inner parts of cities in all areas.

Chinese Kuomintang officials in East Turkestan realized that they could not hold this occupied land and shipped their families and wealth off Chinese provinces.


As this was the ending period of world war, Chaiang Kai-shek persuaded American president Roosevelt to negotiate with Stalin. For an exchange of recognizing independent Mongolia and renting Luxun and Dalian ports to Soviet Union and permitting of military bases, handing over empowering of building railways in north-East China, Stalin agreed maintaining East Turkestan as Chinese a colony, so that not only Russian military consultants were withdrawn, but also selling arms and ammunition to East Turkestan Liberation Army was stopped. Same time, Soviet Union forced East Turkestan Republic to negotiate with Kuomintang government. Through months of difficult talks, an agreement of 11 articles was reached in April, 1946. According to this agreement East Turkestan Republic was revoked and agreed establishment of coalition government. East Turkestan Army downsized to 6 battalions, thousands of insurgents in southern East Turkestan are also renounced armed struggle and back their homes. But Kuomintang’s continuous breaking of these agreements led collapse of coalition government and delegates of East Turkestan went back to Hulja from Urumqi in August 1947 and expanded East Turkestan Army to 5 regiments, 3 infantry regiments and 1 independent horse battalion, a more integrated East Turkestan Army with more than 30 thousand soldiers.

In 1949, China’s Communist Party won the the war against Kuomintang party in decisive battle. Kuomintang prepared to retreat to Taiwan in June. Soon after, prime minister Liuciaoqi visited Russia. Russian government suggested Chinese communist party should accelerate the pace of invading East Turkestan. On 14 th August, 1949, Deng Liquan, delegate of Chinese Communist Party, and his 3 assistants arrived in Hulja through Kazakistan. According Chinese historical documents, on 18th August, Mao  Zedong telegrammed Ahmetjan Kasim and invited him to communist party’s CPPCC holding in September. On 20th August, Ahmetjan Kasim telegrammed to Mao and accepted the invitation.

According an interview with a former Soviet Union spy, after dissolution of Soviet Union, called Hakim Jappar Yarulla Bekof, who worked in Hulja, East Turkestan during this independence struggle between 1944-1949, leaders of East Turkestan Independence Movement led by Ehmetjan Kasimi met with high rank officials from Soviet Union and a Kazakhistan official who worked for Bureau of Kazakhstan National Security in Alma-Ata.

During discussion, Ahmetjan Kasimi refused the suggestion from Soviet Union that of participating to China’s first CPPCC without any preconditions and support communist party’s propagandas and demands that if it’s needed to participate China’s CPPCC, independent East Turkestan must be recognized or at least it must be solved as federal union like Soviet Union. Or otherwise, participation of CPPCC is not needed . The discussion was lasted till midnight. As a  result of vehemently arguing, Ehmetjan Qasimi, Ihsakbeg Munuluf, Delillkan Suhurbayov and other delegates firmly claimed that East Turkestan must be acknowledged as independent state or at least must be adopted federal union system. But delegates from Moscow not even gave clear approval for federal union proposal and the discussion ended without any agreement. Chinese communist party have been claiming that the delegates led by Ehmetjan Kasimi left from Alma-Ata on 24th August and had an air accident near Baikal Lake and passed away. CCP has also been claiming that the delegates of East Turkestan agreed participation of CPPCC without any political preconditions, not demand any rights and fully uphold new China. But this aviation incident has not been persuasive to Uyghur people. We strongly believe that it was an obvious political plot even if it looks like so much coincidental.

Through major victories over battles against Kuomintang Army, CCP prevailed and overthrew the rule of Kuomintang party and built people’s Republic Of China on 1st October, 1949.

From 20th October, 1949, Chinese Communist Party invaded East Turkestan with the help of former Soviet Union and occupied East Turkestan.

On 20th January, 1950, East Turkestan Army was  merged with CCP army. And next year, East Turkestan liberation army was fully exterminated.

The East Turkestan Army , the pride of people of East Turkestan and symbol of honorable history of Turkic people in East Turkestan, the army which left eternal value to all its descendants, was terminated and East Turkestan was occupied and colonized by China. Hereby, I honor establishment of East Turkestan liberation army 75 years on! Long live independent East Turkestan!